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      托福寫作中的錯誤問題解析
      2020-08-07 09:34   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

         1. 指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)


        指代不清主要講的是代詞與被指代的人或物關系不清,或者先后所用的代詞不一致。試看下面這一句:

        Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.(瑪麗和我姐姐很要好,因為她要她做她的伴娘。)

        讀完上面這一句話,讀者無法明確地判斷兩位姑娘中誰將結婚,誰將當伴娘。如果我們把易于引起誤解的代詞的所指對象加以明確,意思就一目了然了。這個句子可改為:

        Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

        例. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

        剖析:句中人稱代詞we 和反身代詞yourself指代不一致。改為:

        We can also know society by serving it ourselves.


        2. 不間斷句子(Run-on Sentences)

        什么叫run-on sentence?請看下面的例句。

        例. There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

        剖析:這個句子包含了兩層完整的意思:“There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。簡單地把它們連在一起就不妥當了。

        改為:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.


        3. 措詞毛病(Troubles in Diction)

        Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何適當地選用詞語的問題,囿于教學時間緊迫,教師平時在這方面花的時間往往極其有限,影響了學生在寫作中沒有養成良好的推敲,斟酌的習慣。他們往往隨心所欲,拿來就用。所以作文中用詞不當的錯誤比比皆是。

        例. The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.(農業方面化學物質使用的不斷增加也造成了污染。)

        剖析:顯然,考生把obstacles“障礙”,“障礙物”誤作substance“物質”了。另外“the increasing use (不斷增加的使用)” 應改為“abusive use (濫用)”。

        改為:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.


        4. 累贅(Redundancy)

        言以簡潔為貴。寫句子沒有一個多余的詞;寫段落沒有一個無必要的句子。能用單詞的不用詞組;能用詞組的不用從句或句子。如:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

        本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同謂語從句,我們按照上述“能用詞組的不用從句”可以改為:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

        例. For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

        剖析:整個句子可以大大簡化。

        改為:ligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.


        5. 不連貫(Incoherence)

        不連貫是指一個句子前言不對后語,或是結構上不暢通。這也是考生常犯的毛病。

        例. The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.

        剖析:The fresh water 與逗號后的it 不連貫。It 與things 在數方面不一致。

        改為:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.


        6. 綜合性語言錯誤(Comprehensive Misusage)

        所謂“綜合性語言錯誤”,是指除了上述十種錯誤以外,還有諸如時態,語態,標點符號,大小寫等方面的錯誤。

        例1.Today, Money to everybody is very importance, our’s eat, cloth, live, go etc.


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